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Key things to know when planning a pregnancy, including taking folic acid before you conceive, foods to avoid, cutting out alcohol, and finding out about vaccinations.
You can improve your chances of getting pregnant and having a healthy pregnancy by following the steps on this page.
It's recommended that you should take a daily supplement of folic acid when you're pregnant, or there's a chance you might get pregnant.
You should take a 400 microgram supplement of folic acid every day before you get pregnant, and every day afterwards, up until you're 12 weeks pregnant.
A microgram is 1,000 times smaller than a milligram (mg). The word microgram is sometimes written with the Greek symbol μ followed by the letter g (μg).
Folic acid reduces the risk of your baby having a neural tube defect, such as spina bifida.
A neural tube defect is when the foetus's spinal cord (part of the body's nervous system) does not form normally.
You might be advised to take a higher dose supplement of 5 milligram (5mg) every day.
You may need to take a 5mg supplement of folic acid if:
Your doctor may also recommend a a 5mg supplement if you take certain medicines, such as anti-epilepsy medicine or anti-retroviral medicine for HIV.
Talk to a GP if you think you need a 5mg dose of folic acid, as they can prescribe a higher dose.
You can get folic acid tablets at pharmacies, or talk to a GP about getting a prescription.
Do not worry if you get pregnant unexpectedly and were not taking a folic acid supplement at the time. Start taking them as soon as you find out, until you're past the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.
Smoking during pregnancy has been linked to a variety of health problems, including:
Quitting can be hard, no matter how much you want to, but support is available.
NHS Quit Smoking offers free help, support and advice on stopping smoking, including when you're pregnant, and can give you details of local support services.
Smoke from other people's cigarettes can damage your baby, so ask your partner, friends and family not to smoke near you.
Do not drink alcohol if you're pregnant or trying to get pregnant. Alcohol can be passed to your unborn baby.
Drinking in pregnancy can lead to long-term harm to your baby, and the more you drink, the greater the risk.
Find out about alcohol and pregnancy.
If you're overweight, you may have problems getting pregnant and fertility treatment is less likely to work.
Being overweight (having a BMI over 25) or obese (having a BMI over 30) also raises the risk of some pregnancy problems, such as high blood pressure, deep vein thrombosis, miscarriage and gestational diabetes.
Before you get pregnant you can calculate your BMI. But this may not be accurate once you're pregnant, so consult your midwife or doctor.
Having a healthy diet and doing moderate exercise are advised in pregnancy, and it's important not to gain too much weight.
You can keep to a healthy weight by having a balanced diet and doing regular exercise.
Read more about exercise in pregnancy
Not all medicines are safe to take when you're pregnant or planning a pregnancy, whether they're on prescription or medicines you can buy in a pharmacy or shop.
If you take prescribed medicine and you're planning to get pregnant, talk to a doctor.
Do not stop taking your medicine without talking to a doctor.
Find out about medicines in pregnancy.
Some infections, such as rubella (German measles), can harm your baby if you catch them during pregnancy.
Most people in the UK are immune to rubella, thanks to the uptake of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination.
If you have not had 2 doses of the MMR vaccine, or you're not sure if you have, ask your GP surgery to check your vaccination history.
If you have not had both doses or there's no record available, you can have the vaccinations at your GP surgery.
You should avoid getting pregnant for 1 month after having the MMR vaccination, which means you'll need a reliable method of contraception.
If you have a long-term condition, such as epilepsy or diabetes, it could affect the decisions you make about your pregnancy – for example, where you might want to give birth.
Before you get pregnant, have a discussion with your specialist or a GP about getting pregnant.
You can also talk to your GP if you have a mental health condition and are planning to get pregnant. They may be able to refer you to a specialist mental health team who offer support before, during and after pregnancy.
If you're taking medicine for a condition, do not stop taking it without talking to a doctor.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassaemia are inherited blood disorders that mainly affect people whose ancestors come from Africa, the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, India, Pakistan, south and Southeast Asia, and the Middle East.
If you are pregnant and live in England you will be offered screening tests for these disorders, but you do not have to wait until you're pregnant before you have a test.
If you or your partner are concerned you may be a carrier for 1 of these disorders, perhaps because someone in your family has a blood disorder or is a carrier, it's a good idea to get tested before starting a family.
You can ask for a free blood test from either a GP or a local sickle cell and thalassaemia centre.
Find out more about screening for sickle cell and thalassaemia in pregnancy
It's important to continue taking any medication prescribed unless your GP/specialist specifically tells you to stop. Please visit our Existing Health Conditions page for more information, or visit 'Bumps' ('Best Use of Medicines in Pregnancy').
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